Claudia Golden won the Nobel in economics for her study of women in the workforce.

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded Monday to Harvard professor Claudia Golden, who is advancing the world’s understanding of the advancement of women in the workforce.

Ms Golden is the third woman to win the Nobel in economics, first awarded in 1969, and the first to be awarded the prize alone rather than share it.

Claudia Golden, 77, is the Henry Lee Professor of Economics at Harvard University. She has long been a leading figure in the field – she was the first woman to be offered tenure in Harvard’s economics department in 1989.

She has written and edited several books, and her latest book is “Career and Family: Women’s Century-Long Journey to Equity,” published in 2021.

The Nobel Committee announced the award in Stockholm. The committee praised Ms. Golden for her research on women’s employment, which found that employment among married women declined in the 1800s, as the economy shifted away from agriculture to industry. Then female participation increased in the 1990s, as the service sector began to expand as part of the economy.

It also illustrates that the process of closing the gender wage gap has been uneven throughout history. Recently, progress in closing it has stalled.

In the past, the gender wage gap could be explained by education and occupation. But Ms. Golden has shown that most of the earnings gap is now between men and women in the same jobs. Specifically, it begins after a woman gives birth to her first child.

“Claudia Golden’s discoveries have broad societal implications,” said Randy Hjelmarsson, a committee member and professor of economics at the University of Gothenburg.

Last year, the award went to Ben S. Bernanke, the former Federal Reserve Chair, along with Douglas W. Diamond of the University of Chicago and Philip H. DeBiogue of Washington University in St. Louis. He won for work that has reshaped how the world understands the relationship between banks and financial crises.

The Economics Prize was established in 1968 by the Central Bank of Sweden in memory of Alfred Nobel and is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

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