Science this week 2023 Nobel Prize winners announced, ISRO to begin unmanned flight tests for Gaganyaan and others

From finding out why galaxies formed during the cosmic collapse appear older and more massive, to ancient human footprints in New Mexico that may date back to the last ice age, here’s this week’s new news from the world of science. There are discoveries and developments.

Nobel Prize winners announced for 2023

The 2023 Nobel Prize winners for medicine, physics and chemistry were announced this week. The Medicine or Physiology Prize was awarded to Catalin Carico and Drew Weissman for their “discoveries related to nucleoside base modification, which enabled the development of effective mRNA vaccines against COVID-19”. The physics prize for developing new instruments and discovering the world of electrons was shared between three scientists – Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz and Anne L’Huillier. Maungi G for the discovery and synthesis of quantum dots. The Chemistry Prize was awarded to Bawendi, Lewis E. Bruce and Alexey I. Ekimov.

Scientists solve the mystery of the universe’s earliest galaxies

The James Webb Space Telescope has provided a stunning glimpse of the early history of our universe, observing a collection of galaxies belonging to a mysterious era called the cosmic dawn. But the existence of massive and mature galaxies during the early stages of the universe has baffled scientists and defied expectations. A new study has now found that these galaxies may be relatively small as expected, but may be as bright as truly massive galaxies due to spectacular bursts of star formation – giving the illusion of greater mass. Are.

BlueWalker 3 satellite outshines most stars in night sky

An international team of scientists has published a paper Nature Journal details the impact of the prototype Bluewalker 3 satellite on astronomy. BlueWalker 3 is a prototype satellite, part of a satellite constellation planned by its owner AST Spacemobile, intended to provide mobile or broadband services anywhere in the world. Observations of Bluewalker 3 revealed that it was one of the brightest objects in the night sky, surpassing all but the brightest stars.

ISRO to begin unmanned flight tests for Gaganyaan; Preparation for TV-D1

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), which is planning to launch unmanned flight tests for the Gaganyaan mission, has started preparations for the flight test vehicle Abort Mission-1 (TV-D1). Although the space agency has not announced the date for TV-D1, it is expected to take off from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota by the end of October 2023. The Gaganyaan mission aims to demonstrate the capability to launch human beings (three crew members) into low Earth orbit and safely return them to Earth by landing in the Bay of Bengal or the Arabian Sea.

New malaria vaccine is more effective and cheaper

A malaria vaccine – R21/MatrixM – developed by the University of Oxford, manufactured by the Pune-based Serum Institute of India and tested in a phase-3 trial at five sites in four countries – Mali, Burkina Faso, Kenya and Tanzania. It was recommended (but not yet prequalified) by WHO in Africa on 2 October. At above 75%, the vaccine efficacy of R21/MatrixM is much higher than that of the first malaria vaccine – RTS,S/AS01, which was recommended by WHO. In 2021 the WHO – which reported vaccine efficacy at the end of one year in children aged 5–17 months was 56%. The results showed that the vaccine was more effective in places where malaria was perennial than where malaria was seasonal.

New tests confirm antiquity of ancient human footprints in New Mexico

Humans dotted the landscape of North America thousands of years earlier than previously thought, according to new research that confirms the antiquity of fossil footprints in New Mexico’s White Sands National Park using two different dating approaches. The footprints, based on radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques, date back to about 21,000 to 23,000 years ago, researchers said Thursday, suggesting that our species homo sapiens Already established in North America during the most inhospitable conditions of the last ice age

First fossilized traces of snakes discovered in South Africa

Scientists have described the first traces of a snake in the fossil record, found off the Cape South coast of South Africa. It belongs to the Pleistocene era. Their studies showed that it was probably created between 93,000 and 83,000 years ago, almost certainly by a puff adder (Bitis arietans, The trace fossil was found in the Walker Bay Nature Reserve, 100 kilometers south-east of Cape Town. Newly described puff adder traces help fill a gap in the Pleistocene trace fossil record from the area. Over 350 vertebrate tracksites from mammals, birds and reptiles have been identified.

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