To investigate the trend of demographic changes, mortality, clinical and paraclinical findings of patients hospitalized in corona wards, before and after the start of general vaccination for COVID-19. BMC Infectious Diseases


The objective of the present study was to compare the trends of demographic changes, mortality, clinical and paraclinical findings of patients admitted to corona wards before and after the introduction of general vaccination for COVID-19. The most important findings of the current study indicate that before the start of general vaccination for COVID-19, the majority of patients hospitalized in the corona intensive care unit (59.3%) were aged 51 to 65 years ( 47.3%). for more than 3 days (54%), required intubation (49.3%), had SpO2 <93% (60.7%), and displayed common symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, and loss of consciousness. Paraclinical findings include positive CRP, decreased lymphocytes, and ground glass opacity (GGO). After the start of general vaccination for COVID-19, the majority of patients hospitalized in the general care department of corona (68%), aged between 36 and 50 years (47.3%), for less than three days were hospitalized (66%), required intubation (20%), had SPO2 ≥ 93% (77.3%), and displayed common symptoms such as weakness, headache, and body ache. Paraclinical findings were within normal limits.

The findings of the current study showed that before general vaccination for COVID-19, most of the patients hospitalized in corona wards were in the age range of 51-65 years. However, after general vaccination against COVID-19 began, most of the patients hospitalized in corona wards were in the age group of 36-50 years.

Consistent with this finding of the present study, the results of the study by A. Christie et al. (2021) [19], ML Salomao et al. (2022) [20] Also Emre Ozgen et al. (2023) [21] It was found that general vaccination against COVID-19 was associated with a change in the age range of patients hospitalized in corona wards. So that after the start of general vaccination of Covid-19, most of the patients admitted in the corona wards were in the age group of less than 50 years.

But K. The results of the study by Dooling et al. (2021) [22] As well as the results of the study by H. Rossmann et al. (2021) [23] These findings are not consistent with the current study. So that the results of their study show that general vaccination of COVID-19 is not related to the change in the age range of hospitalized patients. Also, most of the patients admitted to the Corona ward were elderly above 60 years of age. This discrepancy in research findings may be related to the different geographic settings in the studies as well as the types and numbers of hospitalized patients.

The findings of the present study showed that most of the patients were hospitalized in the corona intensive care department before the general vaccination of COVID-19. After the general vaccination of COVID-19 began, most of the patients were hospitalized in the general care department of Corona. The results of the study by M. Moffa et al. (2022) [24] As well as the results of the study M. Fogolari et al. (2022) [25] This finding is consistent with the present study. The results of their study showed that after the start of general vaccination for COVID-19, most of the patients were hospitalized in general care departments for corona patients. Due to which the number of patients admitted to the hospital in special corona wards has reduced.

But the results of the study by M. Ozsoy et al. (2023) [26] Also B. The results of the study by Ngo et al. (2021) [27] This finding is not consistent with the current study. So that the results of their study showed that there is no relation between the start of general vaccination of COVID-19 and the type of inpatient department of corona patients. This discrepancy in research findings may be related to the different geographic settings in the studies as well as the types and numbers of hospitalized patients.

The findings of the present study showed that before the general vaccination of COVID-19, most of the patients were hospitalized in corona patient care units for more than 3 days. Also, the findings showed that after general vaccination for COVID-19 began, most patients were hospitalized in intensive care units for less than three days.

Consistent with this finding of the present research, the results of the study by M. Tanford et al. (2021) [28] And the results of the study by Akashneel Bhattacharya et al. (2021) [29] It was revealed that the start of general vaccination of COVID-19 is related to the number of days of hospitalization of patients in corona wards. So that after the start of general vaccination of COVID-19, the number of days of hospitalization of patients in corona wards will reduce.

However, G. The results of the study by Suleiman et al. (2022) [30] And the results of the study by Anshuman Srivastava et al. (2022) [31] These findings are not consistent with the current study. So that the results of their study showed that there is no relationship between the start of general vaccination for COVID-19 and the number of days of hospitalization of patients in the care departments of corona patients.

The findings of the current study showed that the number of patients requiring intubation has decreased after the start of general vaccination against COVID-19. Consistent with this finding of the present study, the results of the study by C. Bezio et al. (2020) [32] As well as the results of the study by Cristian de Freitas Paganotti et al. (2022) [33] found that the start of general vaccination of COVID-19 is associated with a reduction in the need for intubation and hospitalization in special corona wards.

The findings of the present study showed that the percentage of oxygen saturation (SPO2) in most of the patients was less than 93% before the start of general COVID-19 vaccination and more than 93% after the start of general COVID-19 vaccination. 19. Consistent with this finding of the present study, the results of Linzi Houchen-Wolf et al. (2021) [34] As well as the results of the study by Ulfa Husnul Fata et al. (2022) [35] It was found that the start of general vaccination of COVID-19 was associated with an increase in the percentage of oxygen saturation in patients hospitalized in corona wards.

The findings of the present study showed that the mortality rate of patients hospitalized in corona patient care units has decreased after the start of general vaccination for COVID-19. R. The results of the study by Kempker et al. (2022) [36] And the results of the study by P. Moreno-Nunez et al. (2022) [37] These findings are consistent with the present study. The results of their study showed that the start of general vaccination for COVID-19 was associated with a reduction in mortality among patients hospitalized in COVID-19 wards.

The findings of the current study showed that before the general vaccination of COVID-19, cough, shortness of breath and loss of consciousness were among the common symptoms of patients hospitalized in corona wards. However, after general vaccination of COVID-19 began, general weakness, headache and body ache were among the common symptoms of patients hospitalized in corona wards. The results of the study by Zunaira Khan et al. (2022) [38] The present study is in line with this conclusion, as the results of their study show that: After the start of general vaccination of COVID-19, general weakness, headache and acute myelopathy are among the common symptoms of patients hospitalized with corona. Were from. Ward.

Apart from this, L. The results of the study by Bonifacio et al. (2022) [39] These findings are consistent with the present study. The results of their study showed that: Before general vaccination of COVID-19, general symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath and loss of consciousness were common, but after vaccination, general weakness, headache and muscle weakness emerged.

The findings of the present study showed that the laboratory results of most of the patients hospitalized in corona patient care units before the start of general vaccination for COVID-19 included positive CRP and decreased lymphocytes. However, after general vaccination against COVID-19 began, most of the patients hospitalized in COVID-19 care units had normal laboratory findings.

The results of the study by H. Fu et al. (2020) [40] The current study is consistent with this finding, in the sense that the results of their study show that: After the start of general vaccination, CRP levels significantly decreased and lymphocyte counts increased in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the results of the study by H. Akbari et al. (2020) [41] These findings are consistent with the present study. The results of their study showed that: Before the start of general vaccination, most COVID-19 patients had decreased lymphocytes and increased CRP, but after the start of vaccination, these results reversed.

The findings of the present study showed that the radiology results of most of the patients hospitalized in the care departments of corona patients before the start of general vaccination of COVID-19 were ground glass opacity (GGO). However, after the start of general vaccination against COVID-19, most of the patients hospitalized in corona patient care units had normal radiology results.

The results of the study by Mamata Reddy D. Kozi et al. (2021) [42] This finding is consistent with the current study in that their study results show that: Before the start of general vaccination against COVID-19, the majority of hospitalized patients had ground-glass opacities (GGO) on CT. ), but after vaccination, GGO results decreased. Furthermore, the results of the study by Jufriadif Na'am et al. [43] (2021) are thus consistent with the findings of the present study in that the results of their study show that: Before the start of general vaccination against COVID-19, the radiology results of most hospitalized patients were ground glass opacity (GGO) were showing. In his chest.

Limitations and Recommendation

Limitations of the study included the short study period and the small number of samples under investigation. Future studies are suggested to be conducted over a longer period and with a larger sample size. Another limitation of the present study was the novelty of the MCMC method, which was associated with limitations such as not recording multiple variables. Therefore, access to all demographic, clinical and paraclinical variables of the patients was not possible.

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